Perfecting Placement: Shotcrete Application Basics, from Aqua Magazine
By Bill Drakeley
Builder/designer Bill Drakeley is passionate about concrete and has devoted his career to the pursuit of creating the finest pool shells possible. A recognized authority in the shotcrete placement process, Drakeley has made it his mission to share what he knows about concrete science and application in an effort to help ensure a future defined by fewer structural failures and ultimately improve the industry's performance and reputation.
Concrete is the construction material used most by humankind — wood, stone, brick, asphalt and glass don't even come close. In a sense, our world is made out of concrete and I am among those who believe the very best way to apply it, without question, is by way of the shotcrete process.
The reason that shotcrete, both dry and wet (both versions of the "pneumatically applied" process) are superior to other forms of properly mixed concrete application boils down to one word — velocity.
When you shoot concrete onto a form or the earth at 300 to 400 feet per second, it compacts and becomes dense. The problem is, most people, even those in the pool and spa industry who use shotcrete on a regular basis, often don't understand the basics of installation, beginning with proper velocity.
That starts with an air compressor with enough air volume (CFM) to deliver the required material at the desired speed. Unfortunately, most companies I've come in contact with use compressors that are undersized, delivering, say, 185 cubic feet per minute — not nearly enough capacity to drive the wet mix properly into place. (More on compressor size below.)
That's just one common mistake that compromises the end product. Beyond that most basic issue, there are a number of specific measures before, during and after the application process that must be scrupulously observed; otherwise, you'll wind up with an inferior product that doesn't provide the structural integrity necessary to create a watertight pool vessel. The ACI has always stated that structural concrete built for water retainage or a water environment needs to have a minimum compressive value of 4,000 PSI (ACI-318, ACI-350).
With that in mind, let's dive right into the basics of making the most of pneumatically-placed concrete.
Proper shotcrete placement requires everyone, from the pump operator to the nozzleman, to know his role.
PRIOR TO PLACEMENT
To begin, you must be certain the substrates receiving the concrete are rigid and non-vibrating. That means your forms must not move during application and the soil has to be competent enough to provide a solid support. Your steel and form installations should be built to structural specifications based on the soil conditions and set up to withstand the impact of the concrete as it's shot into place.
One of the ironies here is that by using compressors that don't deliver adequate velocity, forms don't need to be as rigid to prevent movement. That's what one might call a fool's paradise, because as stated above, it's material velocity that produces reliable compaction. (Velocity = compaction, compaction = density, density = strength, strength = water tightness.)
Beyond that rigidity of the substrate, there are a number of other pre-placement issues, all of which, if not observed, will result in inadequate structural integrity.
• The excavation site should be free of standing water. You should have a layer of stone in the bottom of the pool to ensure control of subsurface water movement.
• Steel should be raised 2 to 3 inches above the floor and away from the sides. The American Concrete Institute specifies a minimum 2-inch coverage around any concrete encapsulated reinforcement.
• Freestanding walls require support mechanisms so there is no vibration. These walls should be secured and fastened properly.
• All plumbing lines should be mounted firmly in place if they are to be part of vertical wall. Otherwise, run plumbing in the floor stone to avoid vibration during the shoot, and make sure the plumbing is pressure-tested. (Consider the difference in hassle and cost of correcting a plumbing problem before the concrete is installed versus afterwards.)
• All of these preparations should be inspected and verified prior to the shoot.
What happens if you get these basic measures wrong? If you have movement of a pipe or a piece of steel, you'll leave a shadow or gap in the concrete which increases porosity and permeability. This can also lead to cracking.
In that scenario, even if the shotcrete applicator has done everything correctly, delivering concrete that measures 4,000 psi on a compression test, the flawed preparation results in an unsound structure, which in turn leads to surface failures or water loss.
Bottom line: Proper substrate, plumbing and steel preparation are essential to create a reliable concrete shell, no exceptions!
After placement, the success of the project depends on crucial details including "cutting" the interior structures to their exact specified shapes and wetting the concrete as it cures.
DURING THE SHOOT
Let's assume everything is right prior to the shoot, all verified and built to spec, the substrate is dry, free of debris, etc. Unsurprisingly, the application process also comes with an important checklist.
• First, be sure you have the proper equipment for the shoot. As mentioned at the outset of this discussion, undersized compressors represent one of the most common mistakes. Be sure the unit you're using can deliver that all-important (and newly recommended) 250 CFM minimum for wet (shotcrete), or 700 CFM for dry (gunite). You can never really have too big a unit, because to compensate, you'll merely have to either step back or turn down output. Inadequate CFM is always, always the problem! In addition, you have to be sure the pump for wet mix or gun for dry mix respectively have the capacity or ability for the shot process.
• Equipment setup is crucial in that you want it as close to the shoot as possible. When you close the gap between the pump and where the material comes out of the nozzle, everything works better and more efficiently. In the pool industry we're doing small-line pumping, meaning we're working with 2-inch hoses, pumping or gunning between 8 and 10 cubic yards of concrete per hour. When you are forced to shoot for distances of more than 100 feet, you have to account for the loss of velocity that takes place due to the friction inside the hose, as well as diminishing air pressure and changes to the concrete mix that occur over long distances.
When the wet mix concrete is pumped a long distance and the heat from friction builds, the composition of the concrete changes in that the liquids, fines and cream begin to migrate to the interior surface of the pipe while the aggregates stay in the center. When you have that separation of material, the aggregate may not be properly coated by cement paste, which means you're not delivering a mix design to the nozzle that can be properly placed.
• When shooting, shoot everything. What I mean by that is never start hand-packing large volumes of material. This does not mean finishers can't hand-compact and work into place material at guide wires with finishing tools. Again, the velocity is critical in that it is necessary to compact the material and fully coat the aggregate. When you start placing shovels full of material by hand, the process is no longer monolithic. Do not, under any circumstance, use rebound in steps, walls, benches, floors or anywhere else. When you hand-pack, you are no longer using pneumatically-placed concrete. You'll get weep holes, seams, separations and all sorts of points of weakness in the material.
• The distance between the nozzle and the substrate should be no farther than 6 feet, always at a 90-degree angle to the receiving surface.
• Always start in the corners or the radius first. It reduces trapped rebound, which is generated to a greater degree when first applying the material to the substrate.
Shooting in layers: I'm a proponent of full-thickness shooting, meaning you don't build up the walls and floor in layers. The concern is that the material won't stand up beyond a certain thickness. When shooting steps or other structures that are more than 12 inches thick, we will use a layering technique. For walls and floors up to 12 inches, we use a full-thickness shooting technique. Layered shooting is absolutely acceptable as long as each previous layer has been properly prepped to receive new materials.
• Air temperature can be an issue. According to ACI, you should be shooting between approximately 40 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit. You can bypass those parameters with mix chemistry in the form of either retarding agents or accelerants. Personally, I'm not a big proponent of admixtures for the pool industry in a local short travel shoot because in most cases simplicity of mix design is better understood with most pool crews.
• Thieves of strength: In order to achieve desired strength, you must avoid the "thieves" that will reduce strength. First, do not add extra water to the mix for the sake of speeding up the placing process. Doing so will result in shrinkage cracks and other failures. Next, when the concrete mix truck arrives, start shooting right away. You always want to use the material within 90 minutes from when the truck was loaded or 45 minutes from when your material is placed in the dry-mix gun to maintain proper moisture content. Next, you need proper ratio of cement, aggregate and water. A typical ratio is four to one aggregate to cement. If you decrease the binder/Portland to save money, you're cheating the end product because you're not properly coating the aggregate with cement paste.
• Orchestration: The process of applying either shotcrete, dry or wet, should be carefully choreographed. A typical crew consists of the nozzleman (the most important member of the team), along with the pump operator or gun operator, hose tenders and finishers. Everyone needs to know their job and be aware of what's going on as the work progresses. The best crews anticipate what's happening and make appropriate adjustments for each other.
• Once you've finished shooting, a thorough cleaning of the equipment is critical. All hoses and the nozzle need to be free of any residual material. This is essential for proper function at the next shoot.
• Setting up for curing is the next step and of extreme importance. The concept is simple enough. You have to make sure the surface stays wet as the concrete cures to prevent the evaporation of mix water. The idea is to allow the water in the mix to hydrate all the cement particles. The more particles you hydrate, the more strength you gain. Those chemical reactions generate heat, which promotes evaporation of the mix water. Therefore you want to keep the exterior temperature cool, which in turn reduces evaporation and leaves more water available for the hydration process – all of which leads to a stronger end product.
Contrary to what some people think, you're not adding water to the surface with the idea that it's penetrating into the concrete. If that's happening, the concrete is no good to begin with. You're curing to minimize temperature gain, which in turn minimizes evaporation and maximizes strength.
The surface should remain wet for the first seven days minimum. You can use misters, soaker hoses, sprinklers or even wet burlap if you're in an area with water restrictions. However you do it, the concrete must be wetted for at least seven days.
ELEVATING THE GAME
If you follow the above measures with each and every project, your results will be far superior to the majority of concrete pool structures now being built. In my years studying pneumatically placed concrete and teaching people in our industry how to do it correctly, I've found numerous examples where every basic step I've outlined here has been compromised to some degree or another.
The result is an inferior end product usually of low compressive strength, all of which leads me to a final point.
Over the past few years I've stirred up more than my share of controversy saying that waterproofing agents should not be necessary. The reason I say that is if you initially (design the mix and shoot to) achieve 4,000 psi concrete, the shell is well on its way to becoming water tight without any additional membranes, coating or penetrating sealers. Unfortunately, the vast majority of projects don't meet that standard and waterproofing becomes a necessary prophylactic measure.
I'm not an opponent of waterproofing per se, but rather a proponent of quality concrete. When these fundamentals are followed, we create structures that will endure the test of time. Miss those marks and you've stacked the deck in favor of failure.
Consider this final thought: In the end it doesn't cost more to do the job right, it only requires that you embrace a set of basic and necessary steps. Doing so will ultimately save money and heartaches down the line.
There's simply no downside to doing the job correctly. I'll go so far as to argue that as professionals we have what amounts to a moral obligation to follow guidelines set forth by ACI/ASA and give our clients the best possible concrete structures (yes, a shell that does indeed hold water), each and every time you fire up the equipment.
Wet v. Dry
Many in our industry believe that either wet shotcrete or dry shotcrete is superior to the other. That's simply not true — both methods can produce quality concrete if used correctly. The difference is that each method can be better for certain types of applications or certain regions of the country.
Our firm uses wet mix shotcrete because we work in high-volume applications most of the time, not only building large swimming pools but also doing work in highway and subway tunnels. Wet mix is better suited for those applications. Dry on the other hand is better suited for smaller applications when you're starting and stopping more frequently. Dry or wet are equally suited for the swimming pool industry.
So, the difference is really like the hammer and the screwdriver, it depends on the application. But for the record, both wet mix and dry mix are the best methods of concrete application, no ifs, ands or buts about it.
In shotcrete, there's no such thing as a cold joint. You can stop shooting and come back a year later and if the surface and surround are properly prepared you can resume shooting and still come away with a monolithic structure.
We use a method called Saturated Surface Dry (SSD), which simply means that after you've roughened a receiving surface, cleaned out the pores and the surface is free of loose material, it is then wetted or dampened as a condition of the substrate which helps ensure good bondability.
For many of our commercial projects, the vessels are so large that they require multiple days to shoot. Using the SSD procedure, we create what are known as construction joints, which in effect disappear completely once you resume shooting. It's not a so-called cold joint, control joint or expansion joint, these "joints" don't exist in shotcrete construction.
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Xenobiotic Danger in Recreational Water
By Robert Lowry, Aqua Magazine
What in the world is a "xenobiotic," and why should I be worried about it?
No, it isn't some new kind of disease, bacteria, parasite or organism. It is a term that is used as a catch-all for a number of things. Xeno is Greek for "foreign" and "biotic" is from "bios," which means "life," but also means "biologically active."
Common xenobiotics we encounter daily include household products such as window, countertop and floor cleaners; dishwashing and laundry compounds; and heavy-duty potent chemicals such as degreasers, drain cleaners and oven cleaners. They also include pharmaceutically-active compounds and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Drugs, both legal and illegal, are also considered to be xenobiotics also.
There are many concerns when it comes to providing high-quality drinking water: scarce water sources, droughts, expanding population and well closings. You can add xenobiotics to the list as well. As xenobiotics go down the drain and through the sewer system, septic tanks do not destroy these chemical wastes, resulting in local pollution.
While drinking water quality has gotten better over the past few decades, the lack of fresh, uncontaminated source water has caused municipalities to consider and implement water-recycling practices. It may be easier to remove the contaminants from household wastewater and recycle it rather than removing contaminants from industrial or agricultural polluted source or ground water. However, recycling water poses another question in terms of the xenobiotics present in water and how they may build over time, an idea which plays a large role in the world of recreational water.
Take perchlorate, for example. An example of both a xenobiotic and an endocrine disruptor, perchlorate is the primary ingredient of solid rocket propellant and in munitions beginning since the 1950s. Perchlorate is also used in the production of explosives and fireworks — it adds the blue color to firework displays.
For disposal, perchlorate is often dissolved in water and poured on the ground. It breaks down very slowly in the environment, but it moves quickly through underground and surface water. Wastes from the manufacture and improper disposal of chemicals that contain perchlorate are increasingly discovered in soil and water. Traces of perchlorate have been found in groundwater in virtually every state in the U.S. It has been detected in many rivers and low levels have been found in some lettuce samples and milk.
How does it affect the body? First, perchlorate interferes with iodide uptake into the thyroid gland. Because iodide is an essential component of thyroid hormones, perchlorate disrupts the function of the thyroid. The thyroid helps to regulate metabolism. In children, the thyroid also plays a major role in proper development. Impairment of thyroid function in expectant mothers may impact the fetus and newborn and result in effects including changes in behavior, delayed development and decreased learning capability. Changes in thyroid hormone levels may also result in thyroid gland tumors.
Although the range of health effects for these xenobiotics is broad, all of these compounds are foreign to the living organism in which the health effect is observed, making them xenobiotic.
Prescription medications are formulated to be highly soluble and not readily degradable in the human digestive system. These properties make them persistent in water and not readily degraded by sunlight. Pharmaceutical residuals appear in urine and sweat as a product of their use and subsequent excretion. Other prescription preparations such as topical ointments and lotions for dermal conditions are easily shed into the water upon immersion.
More importantly, these medications appear in sewage in water. When scientists recently tested sewage in Australia for the top 50 different prescription medications, all 50 drugs were present. And after testing streams in 30 states, a study published by the U.S. Geological Survey in March 2002 found trace amounts of everyday products such as soap and prescription drugs in 80 percent of the water sources sampled. Streams showed 95 different chemicals from antibiotics to fragrances.
The bottom line: If municipalities are going to recycle sewage and mix it with source water to meet demands, they have to consider the monitoring and treatment of xenobiotics as well.
The ultimate recycling of water is a commercial recreational water facility (a public swimming pool, spa or hot tub). The water is sometimes used for years before draining or significant dilution.
A study done by J. Alan Beech in 1981 found the amount of pollution per person who enters a pool is 200 mL (milliliters) of sweat and 50 mL of urine. No reliable studies have been done on which to base the amount of urine voided in the water by swimmers. Warren and Ridgeway from Water Research Laboratory, Marlow, England estimated it to be 25-50 mL per swimmer in 1978. Beech estimated it to be much higher for children under 10 years of age. He adopted a value of 50 mL per swimmer.
Kuno from C. C. Thomas in Springfield, IL, reported that an active swimmer in water at 24° C (75°F), when the air temperature was 38° C (100° F) lost approximately 1 liter (1.06 quart) of sweat per hour. For his calculation he assumed 10 percent of the volume or 100 mL/hr. The average time spent in the pool is two hours. The EPA estimates that child swimmers aged 5-9 years spend three hours in pools at a time, teenagers spend six hours and adults one hour. Beech used an average of two hours which produced 200 mL of sweat.
We know drugs appear in sewage. Therefore, it is not a quantum leap to understand that drugs, household cleaners and personal care preparations are present in recreational water.
Of primary concern is the potential for adverse health effects. Drug residual concentrations reported in sewage to date are an order of magnitude (two or more times) below those at which an effective therapeutic dose would result from ingesting the water. [That is in sewage, not in recycled, recreational water that may be years old. The concentrations will be much higher in old recreational water.]
Multiple drugs in the water raises the possibility of drug interactions that may cause health effects not otherwise observed.
Then there is the idea of continuous, multiple or repeated exposure to low levels of these drugs — swimming every day in a drug soup may have untold consequences. It could take one or many exposures over months or years for any symptoms or adverse health effects to appear. This could make finding xenobiotics in recreational water as the culprit nearly impossible. Doctors may not even be able to diagnose the problem, much less the cause.
Imagine if you will, what might be in swimming pool, spa, hot tub, whirlpool, waterslide, waterpark, lazy river or other recreational water. How much and what might be in the water of a recreational facility that has a daily bather load of 9,000 people and has used the same water for 100 days? What about the spa that has 25 people in it all day long and the water is a month old?
If you swallow some pool water, are you ingesting some or all of the commonly prescribed drugs? It is estimated that 25 to 30 percent of all people over the age of 18 years have tried illegal drugs; you may be ingesting some pot, cocaine, heroin, methadone, crack or other drugs. You could be getting extra hormones, amino acids, vitamins or minerals. You could even be getting some extra caffeine or nicotine.
Xenobiotic material has been in the water since the very first pool was ever built. We have just recently been able to analyze it, and we are just now talking about it. And unfortunately, there are no easy tests for xenobiotics or drugs, as they are insignificant on a total dissolved solids test.
We also do not know what any common water sanitizers will do to xenobiotics. They may destroy them. They may do nothing to them. They may chlorinate them, brominate them or oxidize them to unknown byproducts that may be harmful or harmless.
At present for recreational water, the only defense we have against xenobiotics is draining. One draining method used in England and Europe is to drain 30 liters (about 8 gallons) of water per bather per day. This may also reduce the need to superchlorinate.
One recommendation is to use water from an approved potable municipal water treatment facility. This water must meet the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act. Some 100+ known contaminants are below the level determined safe and it has been tested. Do not use ground water, well water or surface water in a recreational water facility unless the water has been tested by the local health authority and approved for drinking. There is no way of knowing what is in that water without extensive and expensive testing.
As I mentioned earlier, xenobiotics is a hot topic in drinking water right now, meaning it'll naturally trickle down to the pool industry. It won't be long before recreational water comes under scrutiny — will you be ready when your customers start asking about it?
Fire provides a dramatic effect for any environment. Add fire coming out of a water feature, or in a swimming pool environment, and you've got the ultimate "wow" factor for your outdoor living space. Check out this video which illustrates this unique feature.
Creating Privacy In Your Yard
by RACHEL LAURENDEAU, from My Home Improvement on APRIL 9, 2013
It's easy to add privacy to your yard or deck while beautifying your landscape. We all use our yards differently from swimming and sunbathing to grilling and entertaining but one thing is certain, it's nice to have some privacy while enjoying your space.
• Plan your landscaping and hardscaping strategically. Although it might seem logical to build a deck right off the house, if your yard offers an area with more natural privacy such as large trees or a berm, consider building your patio or deck in this location.
• Privacy screens are excellent and attractive ways to block off one or more sides of your deck. By planting climbing vines at the base of the screen or trellis, it will blend into the garden and can provide more greenery, flowers and even lovely scents. Simple screens can be built as a DIY home improvement project or your can ask your deck builder to custom build one to match the deck.
• Natural screens offer a more organic look while providing privacy. There are a number of different ways to achieve this:
o Large pots can be filled with quick growing ornamental grasses, bamboo or even small shrubs such as pyramidal cedars and lined up along the edge of your deck. If you want something more permanent than pots, you could put in a narrow garden bed along the edge of the deck and fill it with these same types of plants.
o Plant shrubs to create a hedge. There are a number of fast-growing shrubs that can be selected to offer privacy and interesting leaf color/texture or beautiful blooms to attract butterflies and birds. Talk to the pros at your local garden center to find out which species would be best suited to your area and specific growing conditions.
o For a larger scale and longer-term commitment, plant trees in your yard. Trees have the added bonus of creating shade and attracting wildlife to your yard and there are a number of excellent species that grow quickly.
• Build structures for privacy. If you are looking for more seclusion than privacy screening can offer, you may want to consider talking to your deck builder about constructing a gazebo, porch or a pergola. The pergola could be draped in vines or you can have drapery made of beautiful, weather-resistant fabrics.
Following these simple tips can help you create the privacy that you crave in your yard while enhancing the look of your landscaping. Now, get out and enjoy the beautiful outdoor space that you've created!
New Energy Star Standards Set for Pool Pumps
With an energy efficient pool pump, a typical pool owner could save $160 per year in energy costs.
The Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency have set new Energy Star criteria for pool pumps, giving pool-owning American shoppers better information to use before making an important purchase. Energy Star-rated pool pumps will use at least 30% less energy, on average, than the typical model on the market today. Some will use 72% less. The estimated cost savings from operating an efficient pool pump is $160 per year, meaning a typical consumer will recoup the greater cost of purchase within fewer than three years; after that, the savings from saved energy is like found money.
The United States has more than 5 million in-ground pools, and another 150,000 are built annually. If all pool pumps in the U.S. met the new specification, the energy saved would be equivalent to removing 140,000 vehicles from the road.
One seemingly simple innovation incorporated into Energy Star-rated pumps is variable speed, since conventional pumps typically operate at the highest speed, even during times, such as during filtration, when half speed is sufficient. Slower speeds also mean quieter operation.
Now, it's up to manufacturers to submit products for approval, so that consumers can take advantage of the new labeling program. For more information, visit energystar.gov.